Acid- any compound containing hydrogen that ionizes to yield hydogen (H+) ions in water; have pHs less than 7.
Activation energy- the minimum energy colliding particals must have to react.
Anion- atom or group of atoms with a negative charge.
Aromatic compound- name given to the arenes because of their pleasant odor.
Aromatic ring- another name for a benzene ring.
Base- any compound that ionizes to yield hydroxide (OH) in water; have pHs greater than 7.
Carbocation- an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.
Cation- atom or group of atoms with a positive charge.
Chemical properties- ability of a substance to undergo chemical reactions and to form new substances.
Copolymer- a polymer of two or more different monomers.
Covalent bond- a chemical bond formeed by the sharing of one or more electrons, especially pairs of electrons, between atoms.
Delocalized electrons- electrons in a molecule that do not belong to a single atom or a covalent bond.
Electron- negatively charged subatomic particle.
Electronegativity- the tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined with another element.
Electrophile- chemical compound or group that is attracted to electrons and tends to accept electrons.
Functional group- a specific arangement of atoms in an organic compound that is capable of characteristic chemical reactions; the chemistry of an organic compound is determined by its functional groups.
Grignard reagent- any of an important class of extremely reactive chemical compounds used in the synthesis of hydrocarbons, alcohols, carboxylic acids, and other compounds.
Halide- a chemical compound of a halogen with a more electropositive element or group.
Homopolymer- polymer composed of identical monomeric units.
Isomerism- state or condition of being an isomer.
Macromolecule- a very large molecule, such as a polymer, consisting of many smaller structural units linked together.
Molecular formula- a chemical formula that shows the actual number and kinds of atoms present in a molecule of a compound.
Molecular weight- sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule.
Molecule- a neutral chemically bonded group of atoms that act together as a unit.
Monomer- molecule that can combine with others to form a polymer.
Nucleophile- chemical compound or group that is attracted to nuclei and tends to donate or share electrons.
Organic compound- carbon- based compound
Physical properties- properties that can vary from one form of a compound to another; ie: shape, density, melting point, and color.
Pi bond- a bond in which the bonding electrons are most likely to be found in the sausage-shaped regions above and below the nuclei of the bonded atoms. Associated with double bonds and triple bonds
Polymer- any of numerous and synthetic compounds of usually high molecular weight consisting of up to millions of repeated linked units, each a relatively light and simple molecule.
Proton- a positively charged subatomic particle.
Reactant- starting substance in a chemical reaction.
Resonance structure- have the same chemical formula and the same general shape; a double bond could be moved.
Stereoisomerism- when an organic molecule has the same molecular structure as another molecule but differs in the arrangement of the atoms within that space.
Structural formula- a chemical formula that shows how the atoms and bonds in a molecule are arranged.
Superimposed- to lay or place (something) on or over something else.
Transition state- term used to refer to the activated complex.
Unimolecular kinetics- one molecule undergoes the reaction.
Valence- energy ring of an atom.